The measurements were done ‘blindly’ without actually seeing the structures under study. Visualising the gestational sac by B-mode ultrasound was first described by the Donald and MacVicar team in In , they were able to demonstrate a 5-weeks gestational sac. Kobayashi also described the ultrasonic appearance of extra-uterine pregnancy using bi-stable B-mode ultrasound in Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver reported in a large series of patients where fetal death in utero was diagnosed solely on bistable ultrasound scan. The ability to recognise and confirm the presence of fetal cardiac action in early pregnancy was considered to be one of the most indispensible use of ultrasonography and still is. The fetus was first located with B- scan ultrasound and the heartbeat obseved with a directed beam in A- and M-mode also see below. This breakthrough has profound implication in the management of early pregnacy bleeding and threatened miscarriages. B-mode placentography was successfully reported in by the Denver group in the United States and the Donald group in Usama Abdulla.
Falda liquida nel Douglas Archivio
There are a variety of options when choosing a natural or behavioral type of birth control. Continuous abstinence implies completely refraining from sexual intercourse. There are no hormonal side effects.
Most studies evaluating the correlation of Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of uterine arteries and endometrial hisologic dating found that Doppler ultrasound cannot predict histologic dating To the best of my knowledge, no study has been published correlating 3D ultrasonographic data and histologic dating of the endometrium.
Prediction of post-operative thrombosis in the internal jugular vein Prediction of wound complications in ventral hernia repair Sarcoidosis Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Aetna considers indocyanine green angiography-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in macular hole surgery experimental and investigational because the safety and effectiveness of this approach has not been established.
Aetna considers intra-operative indocyanine green angiography during microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy experimental and investigational because the effectiveness of this approach has not been established. Aetna considers the Spy Elite System near-infrared angiography with indocyanine green experimental and investigational for breast reconstruction surgery, evaluation of anastomotic perfusion in colorectal surgery and mapping of sentinel lymph node in cutaneous melanoma, and all other indications because the safety and effectiveness of this approach has not been established.
Aetna considers indocyanine green fluorescence angiography experimental and investigational for intraoperative evaluation of residual parathyroid glands function and prediction of post-operative hypocalcemia risk after total thyroidectomybecause the effectiveness of this approach has not been established. Aetna considers the use of indocyanine green for sentinel lymph node mapping of other cancers e. Background Fluorescein angiography allows visualization of blood flow in retinal and choroidal tissues, permitting diagnostic support in many ocular diseases.
In particular, fluorescein angiography has become a very important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of chorio-retinal diseases. However, limitations of fluorescein angiography in imaging the choroidal circulation and associated pathologies prompted the use of alternative dyes to improve choroidal angiography.
Indocyanine green angiography is a diagnostic study where indocyanine green, a fluorescent dye, is injected intravenously, and observations of the retina are made at intervals as increasing intensity of retinal and choroidal circulation is displayed. Indocyanine green angiography is used for the imaging of retinal and choroidal vasculatures. It is effective when used as an adjunct to fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis and treatment of ill-defined choroidal neovascularization i.
Birth Control Types (Effectiveness and Side Effects)
A pelvic or gynaecologic ultrasound is an ultrasound of the female pelvis. Most pelvic ultrasounds are performed using both the transabdominal and transvaginal approaches. Transabdominal ultrasound involves scanning through your lower abdomen. Transabdominal ultrasound usually provides an overview of the pelvis rather than detailed images. The transabdominal assessment is particularly helpful for the examination of large pelvic masses extending into the abdomen, which are not always well viewed with transvaginal ultrasound.
Dating has low interobserver agreement, and may not have accuracy to diagnose luteal phase deficiency or to guide clinical management of women with reproductive failure (Fertil Steril 😉 Difficult to date endometrium of patients with IUD or on hormones or if endometrium is nonuniform.
Although this technique will not probably replace two-dimensional ultrasound, it is being increasingly used. It has been reported that 3D US is a very high reproducible technique. The endometrium has been paid special attention when using this technique. The aim of this paper is to address some technical aspects of 3D US and to review critically its current status in evaluating endometrial function with special focus in its role in predicting pregnancy in assisted reproductive techniques.
In spontaneous cycles endometrial volume grows during follicular phase remaining constant through the luteal phase. Endometrial vascularization increases during follicular phase peaking 2—3 days before ovulation, decreasing thereafter and increasing again during mid and late luteal phase. An explanation for these controversial findings might be different design of reported studies, specially the timing of ultrasound evaluation.
Background Endometrial receptivity is a crucial fact in human reproduction. Endometrial assessment has been performed usually by endometrial biopsy1. However, such as invasive method is not acceptable when evaluating endometrial receptivity in order not to damage the endometrium. Therefore, endometrial receptivity should be ideally evaluated before implantation by a non-invasive method. Transvaginal ultrasonography may represent, theoretically, such an ideal non-invasive technique.
Several parameters have been proposed for assessing endometrial receptivity, including endometrial thickness, endometrial pattern and endometrial and subendometrial blood flow These parameters may identify patients with low implantation potential.
An Important Announcement from the ARDMS:
Male infertility The main cause of male infertility is low semen quality. In men who have the necessary reproductive organs to procreate, infertility can be caused by low sperm count due to endocrine problems, drugs, radiation, or infection. There may be testicular malformations, hormone imbalance, or blockage of the man’s duct system.
Currently, histological dating and molecular markers of endometrial receptivity are poor predictors of pregnancy, and their assessment does not lead to improved pregnancy rates. Likewise, endometrial sonographic parameters used to evaluate uterine receptivity still lack specificity.
Bradley, in Hysteroscopy , Endometrial Biopsy Endometrial biopsy is generally performed in the office with a pipelle instrument. The biopsy is associated with few complications, is performed quickly, and generally is well tolerated by the patient. It has a high sensitivity for detecting endometrial cancer and hyperplasia, but it has a low sensitivity for detecting intracavitary lesions, including polyps and submucosal fibroids.
Lesions encompassing a small surface area and cornual regions are likely to be missed. Additionally, Huang and colleagues16 noted that preoperative pipelle biopsy more often underestimated than overestimated the final grade of endometrial cancer. Patients with persistent symptoms despite a trial of medical therapy, normal biopsy, and normal TVUS need further evaluation with SIS or hysteroscopy.
After qualifying for his Membership of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist in England in , Professor Campbell started his life-long career in ultrasonography and prenatal diagnosis. James Willocks , then senior lecturer in the department. Willocks published his studies on the A-scan measurement of the fetal biparietal diameter in and John Fleming , then research technologist engaged by the University of Glasgow, Professor Campbell described the use of both the A- and B-mode scans to measure the fetal biparietal diameter in his landmark publication ” An improved method of fetal cephalometry by ultrasound “.
Endometrial Biopsy. The endometrial biopsy is used to assess endometrial histology. While used extensively in the setting of abnormal bleeding as a diagnostic tool for endometrial cancer or hyperplasia, its primary role in the evaluation of the infertile couple has been the assessment of the luteal phase.
The goal with frozen semen is to breed within a window of 6 to 8 hours prior to ovulation up to 6 hours post ovulation. Accordingly, once the mare receives either HcG or Deslorelin, ultrasound exams occur every 6 hours to evaluate for impending ovulation. There are several options for breeding with frozen semen; the Arizona Equine doctors will work with the owner select the ideal protocol for their mare. Shockwave Shockwave therapy is a treatment modality used by equine veterinarians to treat some tendon and ligament injuries in the leg.
Shockwaves are created by a machine and a veterinarian guides the waves over the injured area for a specific amount of time. Shockwaves improves the healing time of tendon and ligament injuries by increasing blood supply to the damaged area. Shockwave therapy typically involves multiple treatments with the device over a period of weeks or months to assist with healing of the injured area. In its broadest interpretation, the term means any type of medical or surgical procedure used for athletic horses.
This usage would include all of equine medicine and surgery. Arizona Equine has a number of specialists that practice Equine Sports Medicine exclusively. These specialists include Drs. Howard and Taylor are board certified by the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and have been practicing equine sports medicine since Voss is board certified by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, and has been practicing equine sports medicine since All three doctors completed four years of extensive training after veterinary school in their respective specialties.
Assessment of Uterine Receptivity
Because of this and because a better understanding of female genitalia can help combat sexual and psychological harm with regard to female development, researchers endorse correct terminology for the vulva. The part of the vagina surrounding the cervix is called the fornix. The vaginal canal then travels upwards and backwards, between the urethra at the front, and the rectum at the back.
Near the upper vagina, the cervix protrudes into the vagina on its front surface at approximately a 90 degree angle.
metrium can be evaluated by the histological dating of a timed endometrial biopsy,1 cytokine profiles in uterine Ultrasound Assessment of Endometrial Receptivity in in vitro Fertilization Treatment. 5 of endometrial receptivity. in vitro Fertilization Treatment.
La diminuzione del pH favorisce la proliferazione dei batteri gram-negativi Due possibili quadri di patologia orale possono essere identificati nella donna in gravidanza: In particolare Prevotella intermedia ha un notevole incremento nelle donne in gravidanza Diversi studi hanno dimostrato le funzioni immunosoppressive degli ormoni durante la gravidanza. Ha generalmente una forma rotondeggiante raggiungendo anche il volume di una ciliegia. Per quanto riguarda la sua istogenesi si ritiene che il mesenchima del legamento alveolo-dentale sia il punto di partenza.
In passato si pensava che la forte incidenza della carie nella gravida fosse dovuta a sottrazione di sali minerali, costituenti importanti di smalto e dentina, da parte del feto per il suo necessario sviluppo. In sede di applicazione, a dosi terapeutiche, non provoca fenomeni irritativi locali. I vasocostrittori possono indurre direttamente contrazioni uterine e ipossia fetale mediante vasocostrizione dei vasi placentari con efficacia dose-dipendente. Nella specie umana, indagini condotte per esposizioni prolungate e ripetute superiore alle nove ore alla settimana hanno evidenziato un aumento di aborti spontanei tra le mogli di dentisti e un aumento di anomalie congenite e aborti nelle assistenti alla poltrona; non esiste, comunque, dimostrazione che singole esposizioni inferiori a 30 minuti si associno a rischio significativo.
Molto utile la presenza del ginecologo di fiducia, obbligatoria in caso di gravidanze a rischio. Due sono inoltre gli elementi da considerare:
Histologic dating of the endometrium: accuracy, reproducibility, and practical value
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As endometrial biopsy is invasive and assessment of the hormonal milieu inadequate, the need to evaluate endometrial development encouraged the use of high-resolution ultrasono-graphy as an alternative, non-invasive method of assessment of endometrial .
Accessed January 24th, Diagrams Phases Proliferative phase: Early proliferative endometrium Mid proliferative days 8 – Mid proliferative endometrium and Ki67 staining Late proliferative days 11 – Day 10 – 12 endometrium shows glands that are more tortuous and crowded; intraglandular nuclear pseudo- stratification and mitotic activity are more prominent see inset and the stroma is edematous and mitotically active Ovulation: Traditionally assumed to be 14 days, but may vary Progesterone secretion inhibits endometrial proliferative activity and induces secretory activity Note: